International Tracing Service

Timeline of Nazi Persecution, Holocaust, Forced Labour and Life after Survival (DPs)

1933

30th January: Hitler is nominated Chancellor of the Reich.  

30th January: Recha Freier founds “Youth Aliyah” at a notary public in Berlin. By 1941, the organisation will have saved the lives of 5,000 Jewish children by taking them to Palestine.  

27th February: The “Reichstag” (Parliament) goes up in flames – action followed by mass arrests primarily affecting politicians and members of the KPD (communists).  

March: Concentration camps Oranienburg and Osthofen that will discontinue operation in July 1934 are built among others.  

8th March: Following the parliamentary election of 5th March, the representatives of the KPD (communists) are excluded from the “Reichstag”. It is publicly announced that the 81 elected representatives of the KPD must not exercise their mandates in the “Reichstag”, which gives absolute parliamentary majority to the NSDAP.  

20th March: The first “official” concentration camp Dachau near Munich is built.  

24th March: The so-called “Ermächtigungsgesetz” (enabling act) is passed.  

April-June: The first concentration camps are built in the Emsland (the so-called “Emslandlager”).

April: Concentration camp Moringen is built (serving, from 1940 onward, as concentration camp for male adolescents).

1st April: “Boycott action” of National Socialist organisations against Jewish business owners. The action was also directed at Jewish physicians and lawyers and at Jewish children’s and juveniles’ attendance of schools and universities.  

7th April: The Act governing the “Re-Establishment of Civil Service” is passed.  Consequently, Jewish officials – with the exception of a very few – are dismissed. Officials or civil servants who, considering the political activities they have shown so far, “do or can not warrant their unquestioned and unreserved commitment to the national state at any time” are discharged, too.  

22nd April: The registration of Jewish physicians as doctors is considered null and void. From now on, they must not treat any patients other than Jewish ones.   

25th April: Jews are excluded from sports and gymnastics clubs.  

6th May: The Berlin-based Institute for Sexology founded by Magnus Hirschfeld is wrecked.  

10th May: Books are burned publicly.  

June: Concentration camp Lichtenburg is built.   

22nd June: The mandates of the SPD (Social Democrats) in the “Reichstag” and all other representative bodies of the people are declared extinct. This action is followed hard by the self-dissolution of the German National Party (27th June) and the Catholic Centre Party (5th July).  

24th June: The sect of Jehovah’s Witnesses is interdicted in Prussia.  

14th July: The “Act on preventing non-eugenic offspring” is passed.  

22nd September: The so-called “Reichskulturkammergesetz” (Act on the Chamber of Culture) is passed, which is synonymous with the exclusion of Jews from the cultural professions.  

 

1934

 

30th May: The “Barmer Synod” of the confessing church is held.   

 

 

1935

 

1st March: Following a plebiscite, the Saarland is “annexed” with the German Reich.   

31st March: Jewish musicians are no longer allowed to practise publicly.  

1st May: The sect of Jehovah’s Witnesses is interdicted.  

9th May: According to the Reich’s office for statistics, approximately 90,000 Jews and 20,000 non-Jewish political emigrants have fled Germany since January 1933.  

21st May: The Act governing military service is revised. In consequence, Jews are excluded from military duty.

26th June: Owing to an amendment of the “Act on preventing non-eugenic offspring”, homosexual men may be “emasculated on criminal-political grounds”.  

28th June: The § 175 of the Reich’s Criminal Code is tightened up. In consequence, all and any kind of “immoral or indecent sexual relations” between men is punished.  

10th September: The Reich’s Minister for Education demands that an as complete “racial segregation” as possible be implemented in all schools from the school year 1936 onward.  

15th September: The so-called “Nuremberg Racial Legislation” or Act on the Reich’s Citizenship is passed.  

17th October: Jewish cinema owners must have sold their business to “Aryans” by 10th December.  

 

1936

 

May: The so-called “Marzahn Resting Place for Gypsies” / Compulsory camp for Sinti and Romanies is built.

June: The Gestapo forms a separate special commando in order to combat Jehovah’s Witnesses.  

17th July: The Spanish Civil War begins and is to end on 1st April 1939.  

1st – 16th August: The Olympic Games are held in Berlin.  

August: Concentration camp Sachsenhausen is built.  

October: By secret decree, Himmler orders the “Reich’s central office for combating homosexuality and abortion” to be created the task of which will be to coordinate the persecution for instance of homosexuals.  

4th October: The conversion of a Jew to Christianity is of no relevance to the “racial issue”.  

23rd November: The publicist Carl von Ossietzky is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize retroactively for 1935. Since April 1933, he has been and still is interned in a concentration camp.  

 

1937

 

Throughout the year: the Cologne opposition youth group “Navajos” appears increasingly in public, which entails arrests and raids.  

26th January: Officials married to a Jewish spouse are dismissed.   

15th April: Jews are no longer admitted to the doctor’s exam.  

16th July: Concentration camp Buchenwald is built.  

 

1938

 

12th – 13th March: Austria is “annexed” with the Reich. Consequently, the anti-Jewish legislation is introduced there, too.   

26th April: All Jews and their non-Jewish spouses have to report by 30th June 1938 on their assets in the country and abroad if these go beyond ca. 5,000 Reichsmark.  

31st May: Jews must no longer obtain any public commissions.  

May: Concentration camp Flossenburg is built.  

1st June: Reinhard Heydrich, chief of the SIPO and the SD, gives orders that sweeping action be started “against anti-social elements” throughout the Reich. His reason: “The tight implementation of the four-year-plan requires all labour capable to work to be recruited and does not permit any anti-socials to evade work and thus sabotage the four-year-plan.”

13th – 18th June: In the German Reich, a wave of arrests is flowing over men capable of work, who are considered to be “anti-social”, e.g. persons with no fixed abode.   

6th July: In Evian, a conference is held on the refugees’ situation in Europe.  

8th August: Concentration camp Mauthausen (Austria) is built.  

17th August: As of 1st January 1939, Jews will have to adopt the middle names of “Israel” (for male persons) and “Sara” (for female persons).

27th September: Jews are no longer allowed to practise law, and their respective licenses expire on 30th November.  

Early in October: On the basis of the “Munich Agreement” concluded on 29th September 1938, Germany annexes the so-called Sudetenland.  

5th October: The travel documents of all German Jews are declared invalid. Their owners are obliged to hand in their passports within two weeks and allow that they be marked with the “J” introduced by initiative of the Swiss authorities.  

28th – 29th October: Jews of Polish citizenship are expelled from the Reich and have to settle in the border town of Zbaszyn.  

7th November: Herschel Grynszpan assassinates the Secretary of the German legation Ernst vom Rath in Paris.  

9th – 10th November: “Crystal Night” takes place / pogroms are directed against Jews throughout the Reich.

12th November: The “Decrees on protecting the German race” and “Decree on eliminating Jews from German business life” are passed.  

13th December: Concentration camp Neuengamme is built.  

 

1939

 

5th January: Jewish organisations are dissolved and replaced by the “Reich’s association of Jews”.  

16th January: In principle, Jewish emigrants are prohibited from taking jewellery and assets with them. They may take along, though, silver cutlery, a marriage ring and a watch for a purchase price of up to 100 Reichsmark per person.  

24th January: Jewish “emigration action” is to be furthered; Göring commissions Heydrich “to solve the Jewish question as conveniently as possible conforming with the circumstances”.

30th January: In an address to the “Reichstag” commemorating the fifth anniversary of the “national revolution”, Hitler threatens “to extinguish the Jewish race in Europe” should a new war break out.   

4th March: The President of the Reich’s agency for the arrangement of employment and unemployment insurance introduces a decree according to which jobless Jews have to be recruited for forced labour, but kept separate from other employees.  

15th March: The German army annexes the Western part of Czechoslovakia including Prague (Bohemia and Moravia).  

As of 15th March: Occupying Bohemia and Moravia, the Nazis arrest “communists and other subversive elements”. This wave of arrests flows over Germans living in exile as well.  

30th April: Jews are largely deprived of the tenant protection as embodied in legislation.  Consequently, many flats Jews live in are confiscated, and they are installed at so-called “Jewish houses”.  

15th May: Concentration camp Ravensbruck is built.  

June: The Reich’s criminal investigations police agency orders 3,000 Romanies and Sinti from the Burgenland to be arrested.  

August: The construction of concentration camp Stutthof is started.  

16th August: Jews have to deposit all their liquid assets on accounts at foreign exchange banks registered to that end. They will need a permit to withdraw money.    

1st September: Germany attacks Poland, which marks the beginning of the Second World War.

As of October: The Nazis start murdering the mentally disabled and insane (“Euthanasia” /T4 Operation) based on a note made on Hitler’s personal letter paper and backdated to 1st September according to which: “mercy death [should] be granted to the “irrecoverably ill””.   

October: “Police prison camp” Hinzert near Trier is built.  

8th October: The first Jewish ghetto in Poland is built in Piotrków Trybunalski.

17th October: The so-called “Festschreibungserlass” (confining decree) is passed, by which Himmler gives orders that “gypsies” be prohibited from leaving their abode.  

25th – 27th October: Action called “gypsies’ registration days” is implemented throughout the Reich.  

26th October: Forced labour is made compulsory for all Jews between 14 and 60 years of age in occupied Poland.  

8th November: Georg Elser launches a bomb attack on Adolf Hitler at Munich “Bürgerbräukeller”. 

23rd November: Hans Frank gives orders that Jews, beginning with their 10th year, be clearly marked as such in the General Government.  

25th November: In a memorandum, the NSDAP’s “agency for racial policy” demands that all “gypsies” be deported from the German Reich.  

 

1940

 

As of spring: So-called “civilian workers from abroad” (i.e. from the Netherlands, Belgium and France) who are also known as “foreign workers” constitute the first group of non-German forced labourers for Nazi Germany.  

30th January: A conference chaired by Heydrich takes the decision that all Sinti and Romanies shall be deported from the territory of the Reich to the “General Government”.  

8th February: Orders are given to build a ghetto in Lodz.  

8th March: The “decree(s) on Poles”, i.e. a police decree on the need of clearly marking both male and female civilian labourers of the Polish people compelled to work in the Reich is passed.  

9th April: Germany attacks Denmark and Norway.  

27th April: Himmler gives orders that approximately 2,500 Sinti and Romanies be deported to the “General Government”.  

May: Concentration camp Auschwitz I is built.

May: “A-B action” = “Außerordentliche Befriedungsaktion” (extraordinary peace making action) is implemented which is directed at the Polish intelligentsia and members of the Polish resistance.  

May: Initial deportations of Sinti and Romanies are effected.   

10th May: The German attack on France, Belgium and the Netherlands is launched.  

1st July: The camp in Hinzert near Trier is transformed to “SS Special Camp/CC Hinzert”.  

2nd August: Concentration camp Gross Rosen is built, serving as sub camp of concentration camp Sachsenhausen first and as independent concentration camp as of 1st May 1941.  

October 1940: Preparations to expropriate Jewish companies are underway in the Netherlands. In Norway, the German authorities interdict Jews from practising all academic and other professions.  

3rd October: The Vichy Government in South France passes its first “Statutes on Jews”.  

16th October: The Warsaw Ghetto is built.  

28th October: The German military administration in Belgium takes immediate action against Jews by ordering their registration.  

15th – 16th November: The Warsaw Ghetto is cordoned off.  

12th December: The Reich’s Interior Ministry gives orders that all Jews from sanatoria and nursing homes be moved to the institution Bendorf-Sayn near Coblenz.

 

1941

 

Spring: Work is made compulsory in Belgium and the Netherlands.  

10th January: Jews are obliged to register with the police respectively the authorities in the Netherlands.  

18th February: Göring gives orders that all Jews capable of work are to be recruited for labour.  

24th – 26th February: Alarmed by the deportation of Jews for instance to concentration camp Mauthausen, people in Amsterdam launch the “February strike” which is bloodily put down by the Germans.

29th March: The Vichy Government establishes a “general commissariat for Jewish issues” in South France.  

April: “Euthanasia” action 14f13 is launched; psychically ill persons interned in concentration camps and other prisoners are singled out and murdered.    

6th April: The Germans attack Yugoslavia and Greece.  

1st June: Concentration camp Natzweiler-Struthof under construction since October 1940 and initially annexed with concentration camp Sachsenhausen becomes independent.  

June: The Vichy Government strips the Jews living in the French colonies in Northern Africa of their citizenship and subjects them to discriminatory measures.  

22nd June: “Operation Barbarossa” – the German assault on the Soviet Union is unleashed.

July: Heydrich gives orders that Soviet prisoners of war be shot. By the end of the year, approximately 2 million out of the more than 3 million captured members of the Red Army will have died.   

July: The South France-based Vichy Government passes a law on the expropriation of Jewish assets and business. On 21st November 1941, this legislation is introduced in Algeria as well.  

August: Concentration camp Jasenovac is built in Croatia.  

18th August: “Immediate action is directed at the Swing youth”; consequently, about 300 members are arrested. The repressive measures experienced or witnessed give grounds to many adolescents to become politicized.  

24th August: The Nazis “officially” discontinue “euthanasia” action on Germans responding to the public protests voiced in particular by clergymen such as Bishop Galen (Münster).

27th August: Himmler gives orders that “… all incendiary clerics, Germanophobe Czechs and Poles as well as Communists and such like rabble shall be sent to a concentration camp for long-term confinement…”  

Early in September: In Auschwitz I, human beings are gassed for the first time (Soviet prisoners of war).

August: Transit camp Drancy near Paris is opened.  

1st September: In the German Reich, all Jews from their 6th year onward have to wear the distinguishing mark of the “Star of David”.  

29th – 30th September: 33,771 Jews are shot in the gorge of Babi Jar near the Ukrainian capital of Kiev.  

October: The registration of all 88,000 Jews is started in the “Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia”.  

16th October – 4th November: The Nazis begin the deportation from Germany, Austria and the “Protectorate” that is to affect almost 20,000 individuals.

23rd October: Jews are prohibited from leaving the Reich for emigration.  

Early in November: Five “gypsies’ transports” including about 1,000 people each leave Austria for Lodz terminal.  

8th November – 25th January 1942: In 23 transports, about 23,000 Jews are deported from the German Reich “to the East”.  

25th November: The eleventh decree concerning the law on Reich citizenship is introduced defining that Jews staying abroad are deprived of their German citizenship with their assets or property going to the Reich.  

November: Ghetto Theresienstadt starts to be in operation.   

December: Auschwitz-Birkenau is built.  

As of December: Soviet prisoners of war are recruited for forced labour. At the same time, the Nazis oblige the residents of the “Eastern regions” to do forced labour where necessary.

7th December: The “cloak-and-dagger decree” (“NN” decree) to which 7,000 civilians and resistance fighters in particular from France, Belgium, Holland and Norway will fall victim is passed.   

8th December: The mass killing in Chelmno/Kulmhof begins.

 

1942

 

January: The first gas chamber in Auschwitz-Birkenau is put into operation.  

14th January: The deportation of Jews is prepared in the Netherlands (transit camp Westerbork).  

20th January: The “Wannsee” conference takes place.  

20th February: The so-called “Eastern worker decrees” are passed, i.e. general provisions on recruiting and employing labour from the East. Implementing these decrees, the Nazis (ab)use close to 3 million people for forced labour.  

March: Deportation from Germany’s satellite Slovakia is started.  

17th March: “Operation Reinhardt” is launched, which marks the beginning of the mass killing in Belzec.  

27th March – 28th June: Deportation from France is started.  

End of April / Beginning of May: Mass murder in Sobibor is started.  

22nd May: The Polish-Jewish organisation “Bund” sends a report to the Polish exile Government in London appealing to the Allies to preclude the total extinction of Polish Jewry.  

27th May: A bomb attack is launched on the deputy protector of the Reich Reinhard Heydrich in Prague.  

1st June: On 1st June, the German military commander in France gives orders that all Jews having completed their 6th year have to wear the “Star of David”.  

9th June: Hitler gives orders to destroy the Czech village of Lidice and kill its male residents in “retaliation” for the attack on Reinhard Heydrich.   

Summer: A two-year service is introduced for all 18- to 20-year old Ukrainians in the Reich.  

15th July: First deportations of Jews are effected in the Netherlands.  

16th – 17th July: The “Rafle du Vélodrome d’Hiver”, i.e. a raid directed in particular at Eastern European and stateless Jews, takes place in Paris. 12,884 Jewish men, women and children are deported to Auschwitz as of 19th July.  

19th July: Himmler gives orders to “resettle” all Jews of the General Government (“Operation Reinhard”). By October 1943, more than two million Jews and approximately 50,000 Sinti and Romanies will have been murdered.  

22nd July: First deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto are effected.   

27th July: Concentration camp Malines in Belgium is built.  

As of August: “Wild euthanasia” is performed by means of medicine and “starvation diet”.  

4th August: First deportations of Jews from Belgium to Auschwitz are effected.   

31st August: The “Red Chapel” is broken up.  

As of September: Work is made compulsory in France.  

26th October: Anti-Jewish measures are taken in Norway.  

5th November: Himmler gives orders that all concentration camps in the German Reich be rendered “clear of Jews” and all Jewish prisoners be moved to Auschwitz.  

11th December: In their occupation zone in North Africa, the Germans start obliging Jews to clearly mark themselves as such.  

December: The transports to extermination camp Belzec are stopped, and the camp is closed. The last 600 Jewish inmates are murdered in Sobibor.  

December – late summer 1943: The Nazis launch “Meerschaum action”, i.e. proceed to deport French nationals in implementation of the “cloak-and-dagger” decree.  

1st December: The first Jews deported from Norway arrive at extermination camp Auschwitz.  

16th December: Himmler’s “Auschwitz decree” is passed according to which all “gypsies’ half-breeds, Romanies gypsies and members of gypsies’ clans from the Balkan … are to be committed to a concentration camp”.

Late in 1942: The “edelweiss pirates” publicly appear in droves in Cologne.  

 

1943

 

1st January: A mere 51,000 Jews are living in the “old Reich”.  

6th February: The German occupation authorities in Greece oblige the Jewish population to mark themselves clearly as Jews.  

22nd February: For being members of the resistance group called “White Rose”, Sophie and Hans Scholl as well as Christoph Probst are guillotined.  

24th February: Adolf Hitler gives orders to “shoot on the spot” members of the German army refusing to obey to orders. In consequence, a total of about 20,000 deserters is executed.

16th February: Orders are given to “liquidate” the Warsaw Ghetto.  

18th February: The so-called “Teheran children” arrive in Palestine.  

26th February: The first trains deporting Sinti and Romanies from the German Reich arrive at Auschwitz.  

27th February: The so-called “Factory action” is launched which marks the beginning of the deportation of Jewish armaments industry workers from Berlin to Auschwitz.  

March: Jewish orphans coming from Romanian Transnistria arrive in Palestine.  

March: Oskar Schindler starts his rescue action in Krakow in the course of which he will save 1,200 Jews from annihilation.  

15th March: The first deportation train from Greece arrives at Auschwitz.

19th April: The “liquidation” of the Warsaw Ghetto is started. The Warsaw Ghetto uprising is launched and will be ended on 16th May.  

2nd August: A revolt is unleashed in Treblinka.  

28th August: Concentration camp Mittelbau-Dora, previous outlying camp of concentration camp Buchenwald, is transformed to an independent concentration camp.  

8th September: The Italian Badoglio Government concludes an armistice with the Allies. In consequence, the German army occupies the parts of Italy not yet freed by the Allies and the Italian occupation zones in other countries. Italian troops are disarmed by the German army and the soldiers are taken to concentration camps or recruited for forced labour (Italian military internees). In some places, mass shootings take place.   

1st October: Danish Resistance widely thwarts the Nazis’ plans to deport the Jews from Denmark.  

16th October: The German police organises a raid in Rome, as a result of which more than 1,200 Jews are deported to Auschwitz.  

3rd – 4th November: “Harvest Festival” is unleashed in response to the revolt launched by Jewish prisoners in the extermination camps of Sobibor and Treblinka and results in the killing of about 42,000 Jews in the Lublin district.  

8th November: Concentration camp Ebensee/outlying camp of concentration camp Mauthausen is built.  

9th November: The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) is founded.

 

1944

 

19th January: The Nazis break up the resistance group of “Kreisauer Kreis” by arresting Helmuth James Count of Moltke.

2nd March: The so-called “Aktion K” is implemented, i.e. a secret order given by Wilhelm Keitel to murder captured officers in particular those of the Red Army in concentration camp Mauthausen.  

19th March: Germany annexes Hungary.  

15th May: The mass deportation of the Hungarian Jews starts.  

Summer: The Nazis launch “Action Spring Wind”, i.e. deport French and Belgian nationals in implementation of the “cloak-and-dagger” decree.  

3rd June: The Allies firstly define the term of “DP” (Outline Plan for Refugees and Displaced Person).

13th July: Vilnius (Lithuania) is freed by the Red Army.  

20th July: An attempt to assassinate and revolt at Hitler is launched and fails as the latter is only slightly injured by the bomb. As a consequence, the heads of the “20th July” group are arrested and executed, among them Count Stauffenberg.

23rd July: Concentration/extermination camp Majdanek is freed by the Red Army.

1st August: The Warsaw Uprising launched by the Polish home army begins.    

2nd – 3rd August: The “Gypsies’ camp” in Auschwitz is “liquidated”; consequently, close to 3,000 people are driven into the gas chambers.  

22nd August: The so-called “Bars Operation” is started, i.e. former politicians, members of democratic parties and political opponents are arrested and sent “behind bars”.

28th August – 27th October: The revolt in Slovakia is unleashed. Following its collapse, 13,500 Slovakian Jews are deported to Auschwitz, Sachsenhausen and Theresienstadt.  

September: Several hundreds of Danish policemen are arrested for instance for having refused collaboration.  

2nd October: The Warsaw Uprising results in the capitulation of the Polish home army and the deportation of thousands of Poles.  

November: On an order given by Himmler, gas chambers and crematoria in Auschwitz are destroyed.  

10th November: 13 persons from the “edelweiss group Steinbrück” are publicly executed in Cologne-Ehrenfeld.  

18th November: SHAEF memorandum no. 39 is issued, i.e. a written declaration of principles the Allied powers will adhere to when dealing with displaced persons.  

23rd November: Alsatian concentration camp Natzweiler is freed.  

 

1945

 

17th January: Warsaw is freed. The Soviet troops are approaching the Krakow suburbs.  

27th January: Auschwitz is freed by the Red Army.  

16th February: The Germans give the order that all files/dossiers the subject of which are anti-Jewish activities and that cannot be taken along are to be destroyed.  

9th – 13th March: The 36 white buses of the Swedish Red Cross by which Scandinavian concentration camp inmates are brought to Sweden form a first convoy.

11th April: Concentration camp Buchenwald is freed by the American troops.  

15th April: Concentration camp Bergen-Belsen is freed by British troops.  

18th April: The committee of former Jewish prisoners is founded in Bergen-Belsen and Josef Rosensaft is elected as its head.  

28th April: Concentration camp Dachau is freed by American troops.  

30th April: Concentration camp Ravensbruck is freed by the Red Army.  

3rd May: The ship “Cap Arcona” is sunk just off Lübeck bay. About 6,400 out of the 7,000 concentration camp inmates on board lose their lives.    

8th May: Close to 7 million displaced persons are staying in the Western zones of liberated Germany.  

9th May: Part of former concentration camp Neuengamme serves as DP camp for freed Soviet forced labourers.  

27th May: Jewish survivors organise a concert at St. Ottilien convent.  

10th June: The first “Liberation Conference” of Jewish DPs takes place.  

1st July: The “Central committee of freed Jews in Bavaria” is founded.  

4th August: The so-called “Harrison report” is made public. In consequence, purely Jewish DP camps are opened.   

Summer: On the site of concentration camp Bergen-Belsen a Polish and a Jewish DP camp are erected.  

31st August: President Truman recommends Great Britain to allow 100,000 Jews to go to Palestine.  

September: Close to 6 million DPs have been repatriated from the three Western zones. Among the non-repatriated are Poles, Soviet nationals, people from the Baltic and Jews.  

25th – 27th September: The 1st Congress of the Jewish survivors is held in the British zone.  

15th October: UNRRA takes over the administration of the DP camps in the American zone and, as of March 1946, in the British zone as well.  

20th November: The first Nuremberg trials are started.  

 

1946

 

25th – 27th February: The 1st Congress of the “Central committee of the freed Jews in the British zone” is held headed by Josef Rosensaft.  

4th July: Polish town Kielce sees a pogrom as a result of which about 90 Jews are murdered. By 1947 close to 100,000 Jews will have fled Eastern Europe and left for the West.

20th August: The IRO is founded as successor organisation of the UNRRA.

Late in the year: The number of the Jewish DPs in Germany amounts to about 185,000, 45,000 are staying in Austria and 20,000 in Italy.  

 

1947

 

25th – 27th February: The 2nd Congress of the surviving Jews is held in the American zone.  

30th June: The UNRRA concludes its work.

1st July: The IRO assumes the task of caring for refugees.  

18th July: Jewish survivors are straying between Europe and Palestine aboard the ship “Exodus”. The “Exodus” is taken to Bremen on 21st July with the people ending up for instance in reception camp Pöppendorf.  

 

1948

 

14th May: The state of Israel is founded. As a consequence, most Jewish DP camps close in quick succession.   

2nd June: “DP Act” – a new DP legislation is passed in the USA; consequently, 100,000 DPs may immigrate per annum within the next two years.  

25th June: “DP-Act” – a new DP legislation is passed in the USA that allows 200,000 DPs entering the country.  

 

1949

 

May: Following the foundation of the Federal Republic of Germany, the DPs left are granted the status of “homeless foreigners”.  

 

1950

 

16th June: The “DP Act” as effective in the USA is abrogated. President Truman allows more than 400,000 DPs immigrating to the USA.  

30th June: The IRO ends its activities.  

 

1957

 

28th February: The last Jewish DP camp Föhrenwald is closed.  

 

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