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Glossary

  • Camps

    The National Socialist camp system consisted of a wide variety of camp types which differed in various degrees with regard to structure, function, organization, size and length of existence. Considering the metamorphoses and functional changes many camps underwent, it is extremely difficult to subsume them into a specific camp type. Therefore the various categorizations give only a first hint to the actual camp type. Political opponents, Jews, Sinti and Roma, homosexuals, Jehova's witnesses and so called asocials were incarcerated in concentration camps. In addition to these camps there were transit camps, ghettos, homes in which handicapped people were killed and camps for forced laborers and prisoners of war. The total number of camps reaches tens of thousands.

  • Carding

    The carding of documents is an ITS-specific procedure allowing of the selective and systematic search for names. The names mentioned in the documents are registered and recorded together with further data, such as the date of birth, on separate cards which are subsequently included in the Central Name Index with the goal of successively completing that index.

  • Care and Maintenance

    Abbreviation: CM

    Set up on 15 December 1946, the International Refugee Organization (IRO) counted among its tasks to give "Care and Maintenance" (CM) to Displaced Persons (DPs) and Refugees until their repatriation or emigration. In this context the registration, approval and organization of care and assistance were the main task of the IRO. Whether DPs were granted care depended on a check of their eligibility and legitimacy of their DP status.

  • Central Location Index

    Abbreviation: CLI

    An organization headquartered in New York between 1944 and 1949 and formed as a cooperative project of various organizations, Jewish and non-Jewish, to maintain a central list of names of people who went missing as a result of the Holocaust and the war and were sought by relatives.

  • Central Name Index

    Abbreviation: CNI

    The Zentrale Namenkartei (ZNK) (Central Name Index (CNI) comprises approximately 50 million cards relating to the fate of 17.5 million individuals persecuted by the Nazis and their Allies. As various nationalities and languages have mixed in the index, an alphabetic-phonetic filing system was chosen and made for the ITS.

  • Central Tracing Bureau

    Abbreviation: CTB

    Set up by the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Forces (SHAEF) in February 1944, the Central Tracing Bureau was managed by the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) until June 1947. The bureau, first stationed in Frankfurt am Main, was moved to Arolsen in 1946. On 1 July 1947 the International Refugee Organization (IRO) took over the CTB, which started accomplishing its tasks on 1 January 1948 under its current name, i.e. International Tracing Service (ITS).

  • Certificate of incarceration

    Confirmation of the period of incarceration a persecuted person underwent during the Nazi reign. Issued by the International Tracing Service (ITS), this certificate was used to claim compensation.

  • Child Search Branch

    The child tracing service also known as Child Search Branch was established as separate department within the UNRRA in 1945 and continued to be a unit of its own within the UNRRA's successors. Its central task was the search for missing children and the immediate care for unaccompanied children who were persecuted by the Nazis. In September 1950 the Child Search Branch was integrated within the International Tracing Service (ITS) in Bad Arolsen where it has, with altered conditions, pursued its activities to this day.

  • CM/1 file

    Abbreviation: CM/1

    CM/1 files were opened by the International Refugee Organization (IRO) under its care program for Displaced Persons (DPs) between 1947 and 1951. CM/1 relates to the type of form sheet used by the IRO: The letters CM stand for "Care and Maintenance", while the figure 1 indicates the type of questionnaire applied at the time. The ITS archives keep around 350,000 envelopes with documents from DP Camps situated in Germany, Austria, Italy and England. This series of CM/1 case files generally includes so-called "Applications for Assistance" created by the IRO to state the eligibility of the applicants' claims.

  • Compensation

    According to several compensation laws, sSurvivors of the Holocaust and Nazi persecution were eligible to restitution or compensation payments by the German authorities. The ITS provided primary material (excerpts from documents) to the survivors so that they could submit a claim for compensation.

  • Concentration Camp

    Abbreviation: KZ, CC

    During their reign, the National Socialists erected 24 main concentration camps with a network of thousands of subcamps and auxiliary camps. The Nazis maintained the camps to oppress minorities and political opponents, to murder millions of human beings, and to exploit prisoners by slave labor.

  • Concentration Camp Cemeteries

    These were cemeteries, usually with corresponding memorial stones, in which the former inmates of the German concentration camps were buried after the end of World War II. The concentration camp cemeteries were often a result of the death marches on which the prisoners were forced shortly before the end of World War II. The dead bodies were recovered along the routes of the death marches and buried on the site of the fromer concentration camps or in special burial places. The Allied forces also buried fromer prisoners in these cemeteries who died shorty before or after liberation. The Nazis did not bury their victims in cemeteries but burned the dead bodies and spread or digged the ashes in the surrounding fields.

  • Court Martial Proceedings

    The ITS keeps copies of records from war trials, especially the Nuremberg trials, in its archives. The trials were a series of military tribunals, held by the Allied forces of World War II, most notable for the prosecution of the political, military, and economic leadership of Nazi Germany. The ITS also keeps a few records of war time martial court proceedings against enlisted volunteers (Hilfswillige) from the occupied territories.